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ciprofloxacin tablet, film coated
----------Ciprofloxacin 500 mg
DESCRIPTIONCiprofloxacin Tablets, USP is a synthetic broad spectrum antimicrobial agent for oral administration. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, USP, a fluoroquinolone, is the monohydrochloride monohydrate salt of 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid. It is a faintly yellowish to light yellow crystalline substance with a empirical weight of 385.8. Its molecular formula is C17H18FN3O3•HCl•H2O and its chemical structure is as follows
Ciprofloxacin film-coated tablets are available in 250 mg, 500 mg, and 750 mg (ciprofloxacin equivalent) strengths. Ciprofloxacin tablets are white to slightly yellowish. The inactive ingredients are colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch, hydrogenated vegetable oil, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyacrylate dispersion (methylacrylate and ethylacrylate copolymer), polyethylene glycol, purified water, simethicone emulsion, sodium starch glycolate, talc, and titanium dioxide.
AbsorptionCiprofloxacin given as an oral tablet is rapidly and well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability is approximately 70% with no substantial loss by first pass metabolism. Ciprofloxacin maximum serum concentrations and area under the curve are shown in the chart for the 250 mg to 1000 mg dose range.
Maximum serum concentrations are attained 1 to 2 hours after oral dosing. Mean concentrations 12 hours after dosing with 250, 500, or 750 mg are 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mcg/mL, respectively. The serum elimination half-life in subjects with normal renal function is approximately 4 hours. Serum concentrations increase proportionately with doses up to 1000 mg.
A 500 mg oral dose given every 12 hours has been shown to produce an area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) equivalent to that produced by an intravenous infusion of 400 mg ciprofloxacin given over 60 minutes every 12 hours. A 750 mg oral dose given every 12 hours has been shown to produce an AUC at steady-state equivalent to that produced by an intravenous infusion of 400 mg given over 60 minutes every 8 hours. A 750 mg oral dose results in a Cmax similar to that observed with a 400 mg I.V. dose. A 250 mg oral dose given every 12 hours produces an AUC equivalent to that produced by an infusion of 200 mg ciprofloxacin given every 12 hours.
DistributionThe binding of ciprofloxacin to serum proteins is 20 to 40% which is not likely to be high enough to cause significant protein binding interactions with other drugs.
After oral administration, ciprofloxacin is widely distributed throughout the body. Tissue concentrations often exceed serum concentrations in both men and women, particularly in genital tissue including the prostate. Ciprofloxacin is present in active form in the saliva, nasal and bronchial secretions, mucosa of the sinuses, sputum, skin blister fluid, lymph, peritoneal fluid, bile, and prostatic secretions. Ciprofloxacin has also been detected in lung, skin, fat, muscle, cartilage, and bone. The drug diffuses into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); however, CSF concentrations are generally less than 10% of peak serum concentrations. Low levels of the drug have been detected in the aqueous and vitreous humors of the eye.
MetabolismFour metabolites have been identified in human urine which together account for approximately 15% of an oral dose. The metabolites have antimicrobial activity, but are less active than unchanged ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin is an inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) mediated metabolism. Coadministration of ciprofloxacin with other drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 results in increased plasma concentrations of these drugs and could lead to clinically significant adverse events of the coadministered drug (see CONTRAINDICATIONS; WARNINGS; PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
ExcretionThe serum elimination half-life in subjects with normal renal function is approximately 4 hours. Approximately 40 to 50% of an orally administered dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug. After a 250 mg oral dose, urine concentrations of ciprofloxacin usually exceed 200 μg/mL during the first two hours and are approximately 30 μg/mL at 8 to 12 hours after dosing. The urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin is virtually complete within 24 hours after dosing. The renal clearance of ciprofloxacin, which is approximately 300 mL/minute, exceeds the normal glomerular filtration rate of 120 mL/minute. Thus, active tubular secretion would seem to play a significant role in its elimination. Co-administration of probenecid with ciprofloxacin results in about a 50% reduction in the ciprofloxacin renal clearance and a 50% increase in its concentration in the systemic circulation. Although bile concentrations of ciprofloxacin are several fold higher than serum concentrations after oral dosing, only a small amount of the dose administered is recovered from the bile as unchanged drug. An additional 1 to 2% of the dose is recovered from the bile in the form of metabolites. Approximately 20 to 35% of an oral dose is recovered from the feces within 5 days after dosing. This may arise from either biliary clearance or transintestinal elimination
Drug-drug InteractionsWhen Ciprofloxacin Tablet is given concomitantly with food, there is a delay in the absorption of the drug, resulting in peak concentrations that occur closer to 2 hours after dosing rather than 1 hour. The overall absorption of Ciprofloxacin Tablet, however, is not substantially affected. Concurrent administration of antacids containing magnesium hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide may reduce the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin by as much as 90%. (See PRECAUTIONS.)
The serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were not altered when these two drugs were given concomitantly.
Concomitant administration with tizanidine is contraindicated (See CONTRAINDICATIONS). Concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin with theophylline decreases the clearance of theophylline resulting in elevated serum theophylline levels and increased risk of a patient developing CNS or other adverse reactions. Ciprofloxacin also decreases caffeine clearance and inhibits the formation of paraxanthine after caffeine administration. (See WARNINGS: PRECAUTIONS.)
INDICATIONS AND USAGECiprofloxacin Tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions and patient populations listed below. Please see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for specific recommendations.Adult PatientsUrinary Tract Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter diversus, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, or Enterococcus faecalis.
Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis in females caused by Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis caused by Escherichia coli or Proteus mirabilis.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, or penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. Also, Moraxella catarrhalis for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.
NOTE: Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the treatment of presumed or confirmed pneumonia secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Acute Sinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Moraxella catarrhalis.
Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Streptococcus pyogenes.
Bone and Joint Infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (used in combination with metronidazole) caused by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Bacteroides fragilis.
Infectious Diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic strains), Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella boydii†, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri or Shigella sonnei† when antibacterial therapy is indicated.
Typhoid Fever (Enteric Fever) caused by Salmonella typhi.
NOTE: The efficacy of ciprofloxacin in the eradication of the chronic typhoid carrier state has not been demonstrated.
Uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae.Pediatric patients (1 to 17 years of age)Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli.
NOTE: Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the pediatric population due to an increased incidence of adverse events compared to controls, including events related to joints and/or surrounding tissues. (See WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use, ADVERSE REACTIONS and CLINICAL STUDIES.) Ciprofloxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, is associated with arthropathy and histopathological changes in weight-bearing joints of juvenile animals. (See ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY.)
Adult and Pediatric PatientsInhalational anthrax (post-exposure): To reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.
Ciprofloxacin serum concentrations achieved in humans served as a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit and provided the initial basis for approval of this indication.5 Supportive clinical information for ciprofloxacin for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis was obtained during the anthrax bioterror attacks of October 2001. (See also, INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX – ADDITIONAL INFORMATION).
†Although treatment of infections due to this organism in this organ system demonstrated a clinically significant outcome, efficacy was studied in fewer than 10 patients.
If anaerobic organisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, appropriate therapy should be administered. Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Therapy with Ciprofloxacin Tablets may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available appropriate therapy should be continued. As with other drugs, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with ciprofloxacin. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information not only on the therapeutic effect of the antimicrobial agent but also on the possible emergence of bacterial resistance.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin Tablets and other antibacterial drugs, Ciprofloxacin Tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
CONTRAINDICATIONSCiprofloxacin is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin, any member of the quinolone class of antimicrobial agents, or any of the product components.
Concomitant administration with tizanidine is contraindicated. (See PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions.)
WARNINGSTendinopathy and Tendon Rupture
Fluoroquinolones, including Ciprofloxacin Tablets, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and rupture of the Achilles tendon may require surgical repair. Tendinitis and tendon rupture in the rotater cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendon sites have also been reported. The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Factors, in addition to age and corticosteroid use, that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Tendinitis and tendon rupture have also occurred in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the above risk factors. Tendon rupture can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after completion of therapy have been reported. Ciprofloxacin Tablets should be discontinued if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Patients should be advised to rest at the first sign of tendinitis or tendon rupture, and to contact their healthcare provider regarding changing to a non-quinolone antimicrobial drug.Pregnant WomenTHE SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN PREGNANT AND LACTATING WOMEN HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED. (See PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy, and Nursing Mothers subsections.)PediatricsCiprofloxacin should be used in pediatric patients (less than 18 years of age) only for infections listed in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. An increased incidence of adverse events compared to controls, including events related to joints and/or surrounding tissues, has been observed. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
In pre-clinical studies, oral administration of ciprofloxacin caused lameness in immature dogs. Histopathological examination of the weight-bearing joints of these dogs revealed permanent lesions of the cartilage. Related quinolone-class drugs also produce erosions of cartilage of weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species. (See ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY.)Cytochrome P450 (CYP450)Ciprofloxacin is an inhibitor of the hepatic CYP1A2 enzyme pathway. Coadministration of ciprofloxacin and other drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 (e.g., theophylline, methylxanthines, tizanidine) results in increased plasma concentrations of the coadministered drug and could lead to clinically significant pharmacodynamic side effects of the coadministered drug.Central Nervous System DisordersConvulsions, increased intracranial pressure, and toxic psychosis have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin may also cause central nervous system (CNS) events including: dizziness, confusion, tremors, hallucinations, depression, and, rarely, suicidal thoughts or acts. These reactions may occur following the first dose. If these reactions occur in patients receiving ciprofloxacin, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures instituted. As with all quinolones, ciprofloxacin should be used with caution in patients with known or suspected CNS disorders that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy), or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction). (See PRECAUTIONS: General, Information for Patients, Drug Interactions and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)TheophyllineSERIOUS AND FATAL REACTIONS HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN PATIENTS RECEIVING CONCURRENT ADMINISTRATION OF CIPROFLOXACIN AND THEOPHYLLINE. These reactions have included cardiac arrest, seizure, status epilepticus, and respiratory failure. Although similar serious adverse effects have been reported in patients receiving theophylline alone, the possibility that these reactions may be potentiated by ciprofloxacin cannot be eliminated. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, serum levels of theophylline should be monitored and dosage adjustments made as appropriate.Hypersensitivity ReactionsSerious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions, some following the first dose, have been reported in patients receiving quinolone therapy. Some reactions were accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, loss of consciousness, tingling, pharyngeal or facial edema, dyspnea, urticaria, and itching. Only a few patients had a history of hypersensitivity reactions. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine. Oxygen, intravenous steroids, and airway management, including intubation, should be administered as indicated.
Other serious and sometimes fatal events, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported rarely in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including ciprofloxacin. These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses. Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following:
The drug should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of a skin rash, jaundice, or any other sign of hypersensitivity and supportive measures instituted (See PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients and ADVERSE REACTIONS).Pseudomembranous Colitis
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Ciprofloxacin Tablets, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile .
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.Peripheral NeuropathyRare cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin should be discontinued if the patient experiences symptoms of neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness, or is found to have deficits in light touch, pain, temperature, position sense, vibratory sensation, and/or motor strength in order to prevent the development of an irreversible condition.SyphilisCiprofloxacin has not been shown to be effective in the treatment of syphilis. Antimicrobial agents used in high dose for short periods of time to treat gonorrhea may mask or delay the symptoms of incubating syphilis. All patients with gonorrhea should have a serologic test for syphilis at the time of diagnosis. Patients treated with ciprofloxacin should have a follow-up serologic test for syphilis after three months
GeneralCrystals of ciprofloxacin have been observed rarely in the urine of human subjects but more frequently in the urine of laboratory animals, which is usually alkaline. (See ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY.) Crystalluria related to ciprofloxacin has been reported only rarely in humans because human urine is usually acidic. Alkalinity of the urine should be avoided in patients receiving ciprofloxacin. Patients should be well hydrated to prevent the formation of highly concentrated urine.
Central Nervous System
Quinolones, including ciprofloxacin, may also cause central nervous system (CNS) events, including: nervousness, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, nightmares or paranoia. (See WARNINGS, Information for Patients, and Drug Interactions.)
Alteration of the dosage regimen is necessary for patients with impairment of renal function. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Moderate to severe photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions, the latter of which may manifest as exaggerated sunburn reactions (e.g., burning, erythema, exudation, vesicles, blistering, edema) involving areas exposed to light (typically the face, “V” area of the neck, extensor surfaces of the forearms, dorsa of the hands), can be associated with the use of quinolones after sun or UV light exposure. Therefore, excessive exposure to these sources of light should be avoided. Drug therapy should be discontinued if phototoxicity occurs (See ADVERSE REACTIONS/Post-Marketing Adverse Events).
As with any potent drug, periodic assessment of organ system functions, including renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic function, is advisable during prolonged therapy.
Prescribing Ciprofloxacin Tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
ADVERSE REACTIONSAdverse Reactions in Adult PatientsDuring clinical investigations with oral and parenteral ciprofloxacin, 49,038 patients received courses of the drug. Most of the adverse events reported were described as only mild or moderate in severity, abated soon after the drug was discontinued, and required no treatment. Ciprofloxacin was discontinued because of an adverse event in 1% of orally treated patients.
The most frequently reported drug related events, from clinical trials of all formulations, all dosages, all drug-therapy durations, and for all indications of ciprofloxacin therapy were nausea (2.5%), diarrhea (1.6%), liver function tests abnormal (1.3%), vomiting (1%), and rash (1%).
Additional medically important events that occurred in less than 1% of ciprofloxacin patients are listed below.
BODY AS A WHOLE: headache, abdominal pain/discomfort, foot pain, pain, pain in extremities, injection side reaction (ciprofloxacin intravenous)
CARDIOVASCULAR: palpitation, atrial flutter, ventricular ectopy, syncope, hypertension, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, cardiopulmonary arrest, cerebral thrombosis, phlebitis, tachycardia, migraine, hypotension
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: restlessness, dizziness, lightheadedness, insomnia, nightmares, hallucinations, manic reaction, irritability, tremor, ataxia, convulsive seizures, lethargy, drowsiness, weakness, malaise, anorexia, phobia, depersonalization, depression, paresthesia, abnormal gait, grand mal convulsion
GASTROINTESTINAL: painful oral mucosa, oral candidiasis, dysphagia, intestinal perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding, cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis
HEMIC/LYMPHATIC: lymphadenopathy, petechia
METABOLIC/NUTRITIONAL: amylase increase, lipase increase
MUSCULOSKELETAL: arthralgia or back pain, joint stiffness, achiness, neck or chest pain, flare up of gout
RENAL/UROGENITAL: interstitial nephritis, nephritis, renal failure, polyuria, urinary retention, urethral bleeding, vaginitis, acidosis, breast pain
RESPIRATORY: dyspnea, epistaxis, laryngeal or pulmonary edema, hiccough, hemoptysis, bronchospasm, pulmonary embolism
SKIN/HYPERSENSITIVITY: allergic reaction, pruritus, urticaria, photosensitivity/phototoxicity reaction, flushing, fever, chills, angioedema, edema of the face, neck, lips, conjunctivae or hands, cutaneous candidiasis, hyperpigmentation, erythema nodosum, sweating
SPECIAL SENSES: blurred vision, disturbed vision (change in color perception, overbrightness of lights), decreased visual acuity, diplopia, eye pain, tinnitus, hearing loss, bad taste, chromatopsia
In several instances nausea, vomiting, tremor, irritability, or palpitation were judged by investigators to be related to elevated serum levels of theophylline possibly as a result of drug interaction with ciprofloxacin.
In randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trials comparing ciprofloxacin tablets (500 mg BID) to cefuroxime axetil (250 mg - 500 mg BID) and to clarithromycin (500 mg BID) in patients with respiratory tract infections, ciprofloxacin demonstrated a CNS adverse event profile comparable to the control drugs.Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients
Ciprofloxacin, administered I.V. and/or orally, was compared to a
cephalosporin for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) or
pyelonephritis in pediatric patients 1 to 17 years of age (mean age of 6 ± 4
years). The trial was conducted in the U.S., Canada, Argentina, Peru, Costa
Rica, Mexico, South Africa, and Germany. The duration of therapy was 10 to 21
days (mean duration of treatment was 11 days with a range of 1 to 88 days). The
primary objective of the study was to assess musculoskeletal and neurological
safety within 6 weeks of therapy and through one year of follow-up in the 335
ciprofloxacin- and 349 comparator-treated patients enrolled.
The affected joints included: knee, elbow, ankle, hip, wrist, and shoulder. Within 6 weeks of treatment initiation, the rates of these events were 9.3% (31/335) in the ciprofloxacin-treated group versus 6% (21/349) in comparator-treated patients. The majority of these events were mild or moderate in intensity. All musculoskeletal events occurring by 6 weeks resolved (clinical resolution of signs and symptoms), usually within 30 days of end of treatment.
Radiological evaluations were not routinely used to confirm resolution of the
events. The events occurred more frequently in ciprofloxacin-treated patients
than control patients, regardless of whether they received I.V. or oral therapy.
Ciprofloxacin-treated patients were more likely to report more than one event
and on more than one occasion compared to control patients. These events
occurred in all age groups and the rates were consistently higher in the
ciprofloxacin group compared to the control group. At the end of 1 year, the
rate of these events reported at any time during that period was 13.7% (46/335)
in the ciprofloxacin-treated group versus 9.5% (33/349) comparator-treated
In this trial, the overall incidence rates of adverse events regardless of relationship to study drug and within 6 weeks of treatment initiation were 41% (138/335) in the ciprofloxacin group versus 31% (109/349) in the comparator group. The most frequent events were gastrointestinal: 15% (50/335) of ciprofloxacin patients compared to 9% (31/349) of comparator patients. Serious adverse events were seen in 7.5% (25/335) of ciprofloxacin-treated patients compared to 5.7% (20/349) of control patients. Discontinuation of drug due to an adverse event was observed in 3% (10/335) of ciprofloxacin-treated patients versus 1.4% (5/349) of comparator patients. Other adverse events that occurred in at least 1% of ciprofloxacin patients were diarrhea 4.8%, vomiting 4.8%, abdominal pain 3.3%, accidental injury 3%, rhinitis 3%, dyspepsia 2.7%, nausea 2.7%, fever 2.1%, asthma 1.8% and rash 1.8%.
In addition to the events reported in pediatric patients in clinical trials, it should be expected that events reported in adults during clinical trials or post-marketing experience may also occur in pediatric patients.Post-Marketing Adverse Event ReportThe following adverse events have been reported from worldwide marketing experience with quinolones, including ciprofloxacin. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these events in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the event, (2) frequency of the reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to the drug.
Agitation, agranulocytosis, albuminuria, anaphylactic reactions (including life-threatening anaphylactic shock), anosmia, candiduria, cholesterol elevation (serum), confusion, constipation, delirium, dyspepsia, dysphagia, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, fixed eruption, flatulence, glucose elevation (blood), hemolytic anemia, hepatic failure (including fatal cases), hepatic necrosis, hyperesthesia, hypertonia, hypesthesia, hypotension (postural), jaundice, marrow depression (life threatening), methemoglobinemia, moniliasis (oral, gastrointestinal, vaginal), myalgia, myasthenia, myasthenia gravis (possible exacerbation), myoclonus, nystagmus, pancreatitis, pancytopenia (life threatening or fatal outcome), peripheral neuropathy, phenytoin alteration (serum), photosensitivity/phototoxicity reaction, potassium elevation (serum), prothrombin time prolongation or decrease, pseudomembranous colitis (The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antimicrobial treatment), psychosis (toxic), renal calculi, serum sickness like reaction, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, taste loss, tendinitis, tendon rupture, torsade de pointes, toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell’s Syndrome), triglyceride elevation (serum), twitching, vaginal candidiasis, and vasculitis. (See PRECAUTIONS.)
Adverse events were also reported by persons who received ciprofloxacin for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis following the anthrax bioterror attacks of October 2001. (See also INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX – ADDITIONAL INFORMATION.)Adverse Laboratory Changes
Changes in laboratory parameters listed as adverse events without
regard to drug relationship are listed below:
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE EVENTS, contact West-ward Pharmaceutical Corp. at 1-877-233-2001 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
OVERDOSAGEIn the event of acute overdosage, reversible renal toxicity has been reported in some cases. The stomach should be emptied by inducing vomiting or by gastric lavage. The patient should be carefully observed and given supportive treatment, including monitoring of renal function and administration of magnesium, aluminum, or calcium containing antacids which can reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. Adequate hydration must be maintained. Only a small amount of ciprofloxacin (less than 10%) is removed from the body after hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
Single doses of ciprofloxacin were relatively non-toxic via the oral route of administration in mice, rats, and dogs. No deaths occurred within a 14-day post treatment observation period at the highest oral doses tested; up to 5000 mg/kg in either rodent species, or up to 2500 mg/kg in the dog. Clinical signs observed included hypoactivity and cyanosis in both rodent species and severe vomiting in dogs. In rabbits, significant mortality was seen at doses of ciprofloxacin greater than 2500 mg/kg. Mortality was delayed in these animals, occurring 10 to 14 days after dosing.
In mice, rats, rabbits and dogs, significant toxicity including tonic/clonic convulsions was observed at intravenous doses of ciprofloxacin between 125 and 300 mg/kg.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATIONDOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION - ADULTSCiprofloxacin Tablets should be administered orally to adults as described in the Dosage Guidelines table.
The determination of dosage for any particular patient must take into consideration the severity and nature of the infection, the susceptibility of the causative organism, the integrity of the patient’s host-defense mechanisms, and the status of renal function and hepatic function.
The duration of treatment depends upon the severity of infection. The usual duration is 7 to 14 days; however, for severe and complicated infections more prolonged therapy may be required. Ciprofloxacin should be administered at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after magnesium/aluminum antacids, or sucralfate, Videx® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or pediatric powder for oral solution, other highly buffered drugs, or other products containing calcium, iron or zincAdults with Impaired Renal Function
Ciprofloxacin is eliminated primarily by renal excretion; however, the drug is also metabolized and partially cleared through the biliary system of the liver and through the intestine. These alternative pathways of drug elimination appear to compensate for the reduced renal excretion in patients with renal impairment. Nonetheless, some modification of dosage is recommended, particularly for patients with severe renal dysfunction. The following table provides dosage guidelines for use in patients with renal impairmentWhen only the serum creatinine concentration is known, the following formula may be used to estimate creatinine clearance.
Weight (kg) x (140 - age)
Men: Creatinine clearance (mL/min) = 72 x serum creatinine (mg/dL)
Women: 0.85 x the value calculated for men.
The serum creatinine should represent a steady state of renal function.
In patients with severe infections and severe renal impairment, a unit dose of 750 mg may be administered at the intervals noted above. Patients should be carefully monitored.DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION - PEDIATRICSCiprofloxacin Tablets should be administered orally as described in the Dosage Guidelines table. An increased incidence of adverse events compared to controls, including events related to joints and/or surrounding tissues, has been observed. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS and CLINICAL STUDIES.)
Dosing and initial route of therapy (i.e., I.V. or oral) for complicated urinary tract infection or pyelonephritis should be determined by the severity of the infection. In the clinical trial, pediatric patients with moderate to severe infection were initiated on 6 to 10 mg/kg I.V. every 8 hours and allowed to switch to oral therapy (10 to 20 mg/kg every 12 hours), at the discretion of the physician
Ciprofloxacin Tablets USP, are available as white, round, film-coated tablets containing 250 mg ciprofloxacin. The 250 mg tablet is coded with "WW927" on one side.
Ciprofloxacin Tablets, USP area also available as white, capsule shaped, film-coated tablets containing 500 mg or 750 mg ciprofloxacin. The 500 mg tablet is coded with "WW928" on one side. The 750 mg tablet is coded with "WW929" on one side. Ciprofloxacin Tablets, USP 250 mg and 500 mg are available in bottles of 30's, 100's and 500's.
Ciprofloxacin Tablets, USP 750 mg are available in bottles of 50's and 100's and Unit Dose Boxes of 100 tablets.
Strength Tablet Identification
Bottles of 30's: 250
Information for PatientsPatients should be advised:
WARNINGFluoroquinolones, including Ciprofloxacin Tablets, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This risk is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants (See WARNINGS).
CIPROFLOXACIN - ciprofloxacin tablet, film coated
West-ward Pharmaceutical Corp
MEDICATION GUIDECiprofloxacin Tablets, USP
Read the Medication Guide that comes with Ciprofloxacin Tablets before you start taking it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or your treatment.
What is the most important information I should know about Ciprofloxacin Tablets?Ciprofloxacin Tablets belong to a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. Ciprofloxacin Tablets can cause side effects that may be serious or even cause death. If you get any of the following serious side effects, get medical help right away. Talk with your healthcare provider about whether you should continue to take Ciprofloxacin Tablets.
Tendon rupture or swelling of the tendon (tendinitis)
What are Ciprofloxacin Tablets?Ciprofloxacin Tablets are a fluoroquinolone antibiotic medicine used to treat certain infections caused by certain germs called bacteria.
Children less than 18 years of age have a higher chance of getting bone, joint, or tendon (musculoskeletal) problems such as pain or swelling while taking Ciprofloxacin Tablets. Ciprofloxacin Tablets should not be used as the first choice of antibiotic medicine in children under 18 years of age. Ciprofloxacin Tablets should not be used in children under 18 years old, except to treat specific serious infections, such as complicated urinary tract infections and to prevent anthrax disease after breathing the anthrax bacteria germ (inhalational exposure).
Sometimes infections are caused by viruses rather than by bacteria. Examples include viral infections in the sinuses and lungs, such as the common cold or flu. Antibiotics, including Ciprofloxacin Tablets, do not kill viruses.
Call your healthcare provider if you think your condition is not getting better while you are taking Ciprofloxacin Tablets.
Who should not take Ciprofloxacin Tablets?
Do not take Ciprofloxacin Tablets if you:
What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking Ciprofloxacin Tablets?
Tell your healthcare provider about all your medical conditions, including if you:
Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins and herbal and dietary supplements. Ciprofloxacin Tablets and other medicines can affect each other causing side effects. Especially tell your healthcare provider if you take:
Ask your healthcare provider if you are not sure if any of your medicines are listed above.
Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of your medicines and show it to your healthcare provider and pharmacist when you get a new medicine.
How should I take Ciprofloxacin Tablets?
If you have been prescribed Ciprofloxacin Tablets after being exposed to anthrax:
What should I avoid while taking Ciprofloxacin Tablets?
What are the possible side effects of Ciprofloxacin Tablets?
Other serious side effects of Ciprofloxacin Tablets include:
Seizures have been reported in people who take fluoroquinolone antibiotics including Ciprofloxacin Tablets. Tell your healthcare provider if you have a history of seizures. Ask your healthcare provider whether taking Ciprofloxacin Tablets will change your risk of having a seizure.
Central Nervous System (CNS) side effects may happen as soon as after taking the first dose of Ciprofloxacin Tablets. Talk to your healthcare provider right away if you get any of these side effects, or other changes in mood or behavior:
Skin rash may happen in people taking ciprofloxacin tablets even after only one dose. Stop taking ciprofloxacin tablets at the first sign of a skin rash and call your healthcare provider. Skin rash may be a sign of a more serious reaction to ciprofloxacin tablets.
Tell your healthcare provider right away if you have a change in your heart beat (a fast or irregular heartbeat), or if you faint. Ciprofloxacin Tablets may cause a rare heart problem known as prolongation of the QT interval. This condition can cause an abnormal heartbeat and can be very dangerous. The chances of this event are higher in people:
Pseudomembranous colitis can happen with most antibiotics, including Ciprofloxacin Tablets. Call your healthcare provider right away if you get watery diarrhea, diarrhea that does not go away, or bloody stools. You may have stomach cramps and a fever. Pseudomembranous colitis can happen 2 or more months after you have finished your antibiotic.
Damage to the nerves in arms, hands, legs, or feet can happen in people who take fluoroquinolones, including Ciprofloxacin Tablets. Talk with your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms of peripheral neuropathy in your arms, hands, legs, or feet:
Ciprofloxacin Tablets may need to be stopped to prevent permanent nerve damage.
People who take Ciprofloxacin Tablets and other fluoroquinolone medicines with the oral anti-diabetes medicine glyburide (Micronase, Glynase, Diabeta, Glucovance)can get low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) which can sometimes be severe. Tell your healthcare provider if you get low blood sugar with Ciprofloxacin Tablets. Your antibiotic medicine may need to be changed.
Increased chance of problems with joints and tissues around joints in children under 18 years old. Tell your child’s healthcare provider if your child has any joint problems during or after treatment with Ciprofloxacin Tablets.
The most common side effects of Ciprofloxacin Tablets include:
These are not all the possible side effects of Ciprofloxacin Tablets. Tell your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you, or that does not go away.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.How should I store Ciprofloxacin Tablets?Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Keep Ciprofloxacin Tablets and all medicines out of the reach of children.General Information about Ciprofloxacin Tablets
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use Ciprofloxacin Tablets for a condition for which it is not prescribed. Do not give Ciprofloxacin Tablets to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. They may harm them.
This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about Ciprofloxacin Tablets. If you would like more information about Ciprofloxacin Tablets, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for information about Ciprofloxacin Tablets that is written for healthcare professionals. For more information call 1-866-850-2876.What are the ingredients in Ciprofloxacin Tablets?
Active ingredient: ciprofloxacin
Inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch, hydrogenated vegetable oil, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyacrylate dispersion (methylacrylate and ethylacrylate copolymer), polyethylene glycol, purified water, simethicone emulsion, sodium starch glycolate, talc, and titanium dioxide.
Revised March 2009
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
West-ward Pharmaceutical Corp.
Revised: 11/2010 Lake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
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