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bortezomib injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution
FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
1.1 Multiple Myeloma
VELCADE® (bortezomib) for Injection is indicated for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Dosage in Previously Untreated Multiple Myeloma
VELCADE (bortezomib) is administered as a 3-5 second bolus IV injection in combination with oral melphalan and oral prednisone for nine 6-week treatment cycles as shown in Table 1. In Cycles 1-4, VELCADE is administered twice weekly (days 1, 4, 8, 11, 22, 25, 29 and 32). In Cycles 5-9, VELCADE is administered once weekly (days 1, 8, 22 and 29). At least 72 hours should elapse between consecutive doses of VELCADE.
2.2 Dose Modification Guidelines for Combination Therapy with VELCADE, Melphalan and Prednisone
Prior to initiating any cycle of therapy with VELCADE in combination with melphalan and prednisone:
2.3 Dosage in Relapsed Multiple Myeloma and Mantle Cell Lymphoma
VELCADE (1.3 mg/m2/dose) is administered as a 3 to 5 second bolus intravenous injection twice weekly for 2 weeks (Days 1, 4, 8, and 11) followed by a 10-day rest period (Days 12-21). For extended therapy of more than 8 cycles, VELCADE may be administered on the standard schedule or on a maintenance schedule of once weekly for 4 weeks (Days 1, 8, 15, and 22) followed by a 13-day rest period (Days 23 to 35) [see Clinical Studies section (14) for a description of dose administration during the trials]. At least 72 hours should elapse between consecutive doses of VELCADE.
2.4 Dose Modification Guidelines for Relapsed Multiple Myeloma and Mantle Cell Lymphoma
VELCADE therapy should be withheld at the onset of any Grade 3 non-hematological or Grade 4 hematological toxicities excluding neuropathy as discussed below [see Warnings and Precautions (5)]. Once the symptoms of the toxicity have resolved, VELCADE therapy may be reinitiated at a 25% reduced dose (1.3 mg/m2/dose reduced to 1 mg/m2/dose; 1 mg/m2/dose reduced to 0.7 mg/m2/dose).
For the management of patients who experience VELCADE related neuropathic pain and/or peripheral neuropathy see Table 3. Patients with preexisting severe neuropathy should be treated with VELCADE only after careful risk-benefit assessment.
2.5 Dosage in Patients with Hepatic Impairment
Patients with mild hepatic impairment do not require a starting dose adjustment and should be treated per the recommended VELCADE dose. Patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment should be started on VELCADE at a reduced dose of 0.7 mg/m2 per injection during the first cycle, and a subsequent dose escalation to 1.0 mg/m2 or further dose reduction to 0.5 mg/m2 may be considered based on patient tolerance (see Table 4). [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11), Use in Specific Populations (8.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]
2.6 Administration Precautions
The drug quantity contained in one vial (3.5 mg) may exceed the usual dose required. Caution should be used in calculating the dose to prevent overdose.
VELCADE is an antineoplastic. Procedures for proper handling and disposal should be considered. [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16)]
In clinical trials, local skin irritation was reported in 5% of patients, but extravasation of VELCADE was not associated with tissue damage.
2.7 Reconstitution/Preparation for Intravenous Administration
Proper aseptic technique should be used. Reconstitute with 3.5 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride resulting in a final concentration of 1 mg/mL of bortezomib. The reconstituted product should be a clear and colorless solution.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. If any discoloration or particulate matter is observed, the reconstituted product should not be used.
Stability: Unopened vials of VELCADE are stable until the date indicated on the package when stored in the original package protected from light.
VELCADE contains no antimicrobial preservative. Reconstituted VELCADE should be administered within 8 hours of preparation. When reconstituted as directed, VELCADE may be stored at 25°C (77°F). The reconstituted material may be stored in the original vial and/or the syringe prior to administration. The product may be stored for up to 8 hours in a syringe; however total storage time for the reconstituted material must not exceed 8 hours when exposed to normal indoor lighting.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Each single use vial of VELCADE contains 3.5 mg of bortezomib as a sterile lyophilized powder.
VELCADE is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to bortezomib, boron, or mannitol.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
VELCADE should be administered under the supervision of a physician experienced in the use of antineoplastic therapy. Complete blood counts (CBC) should be monitored frequently during treatment with VELCADE.
5.1 Use in Pregnancy
Pregnancy Category D
Women of childbearing potential should avoid becoming pregnant while being treated with VELCADE. Bortezomib administered to rabbits during organogenesis at a dose approximately 0.5 times the clinical dose of 1.3 mg/m2 based on body surface area caused post-implantation loss and a decreased number of live fetuses. [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]
5.2 Peripheral Neuropathy
VELCADE treatment causes a peripheral neuropathy that is predominantly sensory. However, cases of severe sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy have been reported. Patients with pre-existing symptoms (numbness, pain or a burning feeling in the feet or hands) and/or signs of peripheral neuropathy may experience worsening peripheral neuropathy (including ≥Grade 3) during treatment with VELCADE. Patients should be monitored for symptoms of neuropathy, such as a burning sensation, hyperesthesia, hypoesthesia, paresthesia, discomfort, neuropathic pain or weakness. Patients experiencing new or worsening peripheral neuropathy may require change in the dose and schedule of VELCADE [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.4)]. Following dose adjustments, improvement in or resolution of peripheral neuropathy was reported in 51% of patients with ≥Grade 2 peripheral neuropathy in the relapsed multiple myeloma study. Improvement in or resolution of peripheral neuropathy was reported in 73% of patients who discontinued due to Grade 2 neuropathy or who had ≥Grade 3 peripheral neuropathy in the phase 2 multiple myeloma studies [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. The long-term outcome of peripheral neuropathy has not been studied in mantle cell lymphoma.
The incidence of hypotension (postural, orthostatic, and hypotension NOS) was 13%. These events are observed throughout therapy. Caution should be used when treating patients with a history of syncope, patients receiving medications known to be associated with hypotension, and patients who are dehydrated. Management of orthostatic/postural hypotension may include adjustment of antihypertensive medications, hydration, and administration of mineralocorticoids and/or sympathomimetics. [see Adverse Reactions(6)]
5.4 Cardiac Disorders
Acute development or exacerbation of congestive heart failure and new onset of decreased left ventricular ejection fraction have been reported, including reports in patients with no risk factors for decreased left ventricular ejection fraction. Patients with risk factors for, or existing heart disease should be closely monitored. In the relapsed multiple myeloma study, the incidence of any treatment-emergent cardiac disorder was 15% and 13% in the VELCADE and dexamethasone groups, respectively. The incidence of heart failure events (acute pulmonary edema, cardiac failure, congestive cardiac failure, cardiogenic shock, pulmonary edema) was similar in the VELCADE and dexamethasone groups, 5% and 4%, respectively. There have been isolated cases of QT-interval prolongation in clinical studies; causality has not been established.
5.5 Pulmonary Disorders
There have been reports of acute diffuse infiltrative pulmonary disease of unknown etiology such as pneumonitis, interstitial pneumonia, lung infiltration and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in patients receiving VELCADE. Some of these events have been fatal.
In a clinical trial, the first two patients given high-dose cytarabine (2g/m2 per day) by continuous infusion with daunorubicin and VELCADE for relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia died of ARDS early in the course of therapy.
There have been reports of pulmonary hypertension associated with VELCADE administration in the absence of left heart failure or significant pulmonary disease.
In the event of new or worsening cardiopulmonary symptoms, a prompt comprehensive diagnostic evaluation should be conducted.
5.6 Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS)
There have been reports of RPLS in patients receiving VELCADE. RPLS is a rare, reversible, neurological disorder which can present with seizure, hypertension, headache, lethargy, confusion, blindness, and other visual and neurological disturbances. Brain imaging, preferably MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), is used to confirm the diagnosis. In patients developing RPLS, discontinue VELCADE. The safety of reinitiating VELCADE therapy in patients previously experiencing RPLS is not known.
5.7 Gastrointestinal Adverse Events
VELCADE treatment can cause nausea, diarrhea, constipation, and vomiting [see Adverse Reactions (6)] sometimes requiring use of antiemetic and antidiarrheal medications. Ileus can occur. Fluid and electrolyte replacement should be administered to prevent dehydration.
VELCADE is associated with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia that follow a cyclical pattern with nadirs occurring following the last dose of each cycle and typically recovering prior to initiation of the subsequent cycle. The cyclical pattern of platelet and neutrophil decreases and recovery remained consistent over the 8 cycles of twice weekly dosing, and there was no evidence of cumulative thrombocytopenia or neutropenia. The mean platelet count nadir measured was approximately 40% of baseline. The severity of thrombocytopenia related to pretreatment platelet count is shown in Table 5. In the relapsed multiple myeloma study, the incidence of significant bleeding events (≥Grade 3) was similar on both the VELCADE (4%) and dexamethasone (5%) arms. Platelet count should be monitored prior to each dose of VELCADE. Patients experiencing thrombocytopenia may require change in the dose and schedule of VELCADE [see Table 2 and Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. There have been reports of gastrointestinal and intracerebral hemorrhage in association with VELCADE. Transfusions may be considered. The incidence of febrile neutropenia was <1%.
5.9 Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Because VELCADE is a cytotoxic agent and can rapidly kill malignant cells, the complications of tumor lysis syndrome may occur. Patients at risk of tumor lysis syndrome are those with high tumor burden prior to treatment. These patients should be monitored closely and appropriate precautions taken.
5.10 Hepatic Events
Cases of acute liver failure have been reported in patients receiving multiple concomitant medications and with serious underlying medical conditions. Other reported hepatic events include increases in liver enzymes, hyperbilirubinemia, and hepatitis. Such changes may be reversible upon discontinuation of VELCADE. There is limited re-challenge information in these patients.
5.11 Patients with Hepatic Impairment:
Bortezomib is metabolized by liver enzymes. Bortezomib exposure is increased in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment; these patients should be treated with VELCADE at reduced starting doses and closely monitored for toxicities. [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Use In Specific Populations (8.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following adverse reactions are also discussed in other sections of the labeling:
6.1 Clinical Trials Safety Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Summary of Clinical Trial in Patients with Previously Untreated Multiple Myeloma:
Table 6 describes safety data from 340 patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma who received VELCADE (1.3 mg/m2) in combination with melphalan (9 mg/m2) and prednisone (60 mg/m2) in a prospective randomized study.
The safety profile of VELCADE in combination with melphalan/prednisone is consistent with the known safety profiles of both VELCADE and melphalan/prednisone.
Relapsed Multiple Myeloma Randomized Study
Among the 331 VELCADE treated patients, the most commonly reported events overall were asthenic conditions (61%), diarrhea and nausea (each 57%), constipation (42%), peripheral neuropathy NEC (36%), vomiting, pyrexia, thrombocytopenia, and psychiatric disorders (each 35%), anorexia and appetite decreased (34%), paresthesia and dysesthesia (27%), anemia and headache (each 26%), and cough (21%). The most commonly reported adverse events reported among the 332 patients in the dexamethasone group were psychiatric disorders (49%), asthenic conditions (45%), insomnia (27%), anemia (22%), and diarrhea and lower respiratory/lung infections (each 21%). Fourteen percent (14%) of patients in the VELCADE treated arm experienced a Grade 4 adverse event; the most common toxicities were thrombocytopenia (4%), neutropenia (2%) and hypercalcemia (2%). Sixteen percent (16%) of dexamethasone treated patients experienced a Grade 4 adverse event; the most common toxicity was hyperglycemia (2%).
Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) and Events Leading to Treatment Discontinuation in the Relapsed Multiple Myeloma Study
A total of 145 patients, including 84 (25%) of 331 patients in the VELCADE treatment group and 61 (18%) of 332 patients in the dexamethasone treatment group were discontinued from treatment due to adverse events assessed as drug-related by the investigators. Among the 331 VELCADE treated patients, the most commonly reported drug-related event leading to discontinuation was peripheral neuropathy (8%). Among the 332 patients in the dexamethasone group, the most commonly reported drug-related events leading to treatment discontinuation were psychotic disorder and hyperglycemia (2% each).
Four deaths were considered to be VELCADE related in this relapsed multiple myeloma study: 1 case each of cardiogenic shock, respiratory insufficiency, congestive heart failure and cardiac arrest. Four deaths were considered dexamethasone-related: 2 cases of sepsis, 1 case of bacterial meningitis, and 1 case of sudden death at home.
Most Commonly Reported Adverse Events in the Relapsed Multiple Myeloma Study
Safety Experience from the Phase 2 Open-Label Extension Study in Relapsed Multiple Myeloma
Integrated Summary of Safety (Relapsed Multiple Myeloma and Mantle Cell Lymphoma)
In the integrated analysis, the most commonly reported adverse events were asthenic conditions (including fatigue, malaise, and weakness) (64%), nausea (55%), diarrhea (52%), constipation (41%), peripheral neuropathy NEC (including peripheral sensory neuropathy and peripheral neuropathy aggravated) (39%), thrombocytopenia and appetite decreased (including anorexia) (each 36%), pyrexia (34%), vomiting (33%), and anemia (29%). Twenty percent (20%) of patients experienced at least 1 episode of ≥Grade 4 toxicity, most commonly thrombocytopenia (5%) and neutropenia (3%).
Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) and Events Leading to Treatment Discontinuation in the Integrated Summary of Safety
Adverse events thought by the investigator to be drug-related and leading to discontinuation occurred in 22% of patients. The reasons for discontinuation included peripheral neuropathy (8%), asthenic conditions (3%) and thrombocytopenia and diarrhea (each 2%).
In total, 2% of the patients died and the cause of death was considered by the investigator to be possibly related to study drug: including reports of cardiac arrest, congestive heart failure, respiratory failure, renal failure, pneumonia and sepsis.
Most Commonly Reported Adverse Events in the Integrated Summary of Safety
Description of Selected Adverse Events from the Phase 2 and 3 Relapsed Multiple Myeloma and Phase 2 Mantle Cell Lymphoma Studies
In the relapsed multiple myeloma study, among the 87 patients who experienced ≥ Grade 2 peripheral neuropathy, 51% had improved or resolved with a median of 3.5 months from first onset.
Among the patients with peripheral neuropathy in the phase 2 multiple myeloma studies that was Grade 2 and led to discontinuation or was ≥Grade 3, 73% (24 of 33) reported improvement or resolution following VELCADE dose adjustment, with a median time to improvement of one Grade or more from the last dose of VELCADE of 33 days. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Asthenic conditions (Fatigue, Malaise, Weakness)
Herpes Virus Infection
Additional Adverse Events from Clinical Studies
The following clinically important SAEs that are not described above have been reported in clinical trials in patients treated with VELCADE administered as monotherapy or in combination with other chemotherapeutics. These studies were conducted in patients with hematological malignancies and in solid tumors.
Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Disseminated intravascular coagulation, lymphopenia, leukopenia
Cardiac disorders: Angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation aggravated, atrial flutter, bradycardia, sinus arrest, cardiac amyloidosis, complete atrioventricular block, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, pericarditis, pericardial effusion, Torsades de pointes, ventricular tachycardia
Ear and labyrinth disorders: Hearing impaired, vertigo
Eye disorders: Diplopia and blurred vision, conjunctival infection, irritation
Gastrointestinal disorders: Ascites, dysphagia, fecal impaction, gastroenteritis, gastritis hemorrhagic, hematemesis, hemorrhagic duodenitis, ileus paralytic, large intestinal obstruction, paralytic intestinal obstruction, peritonitis, small intestinal obstruction, large intestinal perforation, stomatitis, melena, pancreatitis acute, oral mucosal petechiae, gastroesophageal reflux
General disorders and administration site conditions: Injection site erythema, neuralgia, injection site pain, irritation, phlebitis
Hepatobiliary disorders: Cholestasis, hepatic hemorrhage, hyperbilirubinemia, portal vein thrombosis, hepatitis, liver failure
Immune system disorders: Anaphylactic reaction, drug hypersensitivity, immune complex mediated hypersensitivity, angioedema, laryngeal edema
Infections and infestations: Aspergillosis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, herpes viral infection, listeriosis, septic shock, toxoplasmosis, oral candidiasis, sinusitis, catheter related infection
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications: Catheter related complication, skeletal fracture, subdural hematoma
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: Hypocalcemia, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hypernatremia
Nervous system disorders: Ataxia, coma, dysarthria, dysautonomia, encephalopathy, cranial palsy, grand mal convulsion, hemorrhagic stroke, motor dysfunction, spinal cord compression, paralysis, postherpetic neuralgia, transient ischemic attack
Psychiatric disorders: Agitation, confusion, mental status change, psychotic disorder, suicidal ideation
Renal and urinary disorders: Calculus renal, bilateral hydronephrosis, bladder spasm, hematuria, hemorrhagic cystitis, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, renal failure (acute and chronic), glomerular nephritis proliferative
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, aspiration pneumonia, atelectasis, chronic obstructive airways disease exacerbated, dysphagia, dyspnea, dyspnea exertional, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hypoxia, lung infiltration, pleural effusion, pneumonitis, respiratory distress, pulmonary hypertension
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Urticaria, face edema, rash (which may be pruritic), leukocytoclastic vasculitis
Vascular disorders: Cerebrovascular accident, cerebral hemorrhage, deep venous thrombosis, peripheral embolism, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse drug reactions have been identified from the worldwide post-marketing experience with VELCADE. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: atrioventricular block complete, cardiac tamponade, ischemic colitis, encephalopathy, dysautonomia, deafness bilateral, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, acute diffuse infiltrative pulmonary disease, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet’s syndrome), herpes meningoencephalitis and ophthalmic herpes.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Ketoconazole: Co-administration of ketoconazole, a potent CYP3A inhibitor, increased the exposure of bortezomib. [see Pharmacokinetics (12.3)] Therefore, patients should be closely monitored when given bortezomib in combination with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole, ritonavir). [see Pharmacokinetics (12.3)]
7.2 Melphalan-Prednisone: Co-administration of melphalan-prednisone increased the exposure of bortezomib. However, this increase is unlikely to be clinically relevant. [see Pharmacokinetics (12.3)]
7.3 Omeprazole: Co-administration of omeprazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP2C19, had no effect on the exposure of bortezomib. [see Pharmacokinetics (12.3)]
7.4 Cytochrome P450: Patients who are concomitantly receiving VELCADE and drugs that are inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 3A4 should be closely monitored for either toxicities or reduced efficacy. [see Pharmacokinetics (12.3)]
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category D [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Bortezomib was not teratogenic in nonclinical developmental toxicity studies in rats and rabbits at the highest dose tested (0.075 mg/kg; 0.5 mg/m2 in the rat and 0.05 mg/kg; 0.6 mg/m2 in the rabbit) when administered during organogenesis. These dosages are approximately half the clinical dose of 1.3 mg/m2 based on body surface area.
Pregnant rabbits given bortezomib during organogenesis at a dose of 0.05mg/kg (0.6 mg/m2) experienced significant post-implantation loss and decreased number of live fetuses. Live fetuses from these litters also showed significant decreases in fetal weight. The dose is approximately 0.5 times the clinical dose of 1.3 mg/m2 based on body surface area.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. If VELCADE is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while receiving this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
It is not known whether bortezomib is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from VELCADE, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the 669 patients enrolled in the relapsed multiple myeloma study, 245 (37%) were 65 years of age or older: 125 (38%) on the VELCADE arm and 120 (36%) on the dexamethasone arm. Median time to progression and median duration of response for patients ≥65 were longer on VELCADE compared to dexamethasone [5.5 mo versus 4.3 mo, and 8.0 mo versus 4.9 mo, respectively]. On the VELCADE arm, 40% (n=46) of evaluable patients aged ≥65 experienced response (CR+PR) versus 18% (n=21) on the dexamethasone arm. The incidence of Grade 3 and 4 events was 64%, 78% and 75% for VELCADE patients ≤50, 51-64 and ≥65 years old, respectively. [see Adverse Reactions (6.1); Clinical Studies (14)]
No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between patients ≥ age 65 and younger patients receiving VELCADE; but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
8.6 Patients with Renal Impairment
The pharmacokinetics of VELCADE are not influenced by the degree of renal impairment. Therefore, dosing adjustments of VELCADE are not necessary for patients with renal insufficiency. Since dialysis may reduce VELCADE concentrations, the drug should be administered after the dialysis procedure. For information concerning dosing of melphalan in patients with renal impairment see manufacturer’s prescribing information. [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]
8.7 Patients with Hepatic Impairment
The exposure of bortezomib is increased in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment. Starting dose should be reduced in those patients. [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Warnings and Precautions (5.11), and Pharmacokinetics (12.3)]
8.8 Patients with Diabetes
During clinical trials, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were reported in diabetic patients receiving oral hypoglycemics. Patients on oral antidiabetic agents receiving VELCADE treatment may require close monitoring of their blood glucose levels and adjustment of the dose of their antidiabetic medication.
There is no known specific antidote for VELCADE overdosage [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Dosage and Administration (2.5)]. In humans, fatal outcomes following the administration of more than twice the recommended therapeutic dose have been reported, which were associated with the acute onset of symptomatic hypotension and thrombocytopenia. In the event of an overdosage, the patient’s vital signs should be monitored and appropriate supportive care given.
Studies in monkeys and dogs showed that IV bortezomib doses as low as 2 times the recommended clinical dose on a mg/m2 basis were associated with increases in heart rate, decreases in contractility, hypotension, and death. In dog studies, a slight increase in the corrected QT interval was observed at doses resulting in death. In monkeys, doses of 3.0 mg/m2 and greater (approximately twice the recommended clinical dose) resulted in hypotension starting at 1 hour post-administration, with progression to death in 12 to 14 hours following drug administration.
VELCADE® (bortezomib) for Injection is an antineoplastic agent available for intravenous injection (IV) use only. Each single use vial contains 3.5 mg of bortezomib as a sterile lyophilized powder. Inactive ingredient: 35 mg mannitol, USP.
Bortezomib is a modified dipeptidyl boronic acid. The product is provided as a mannitol boronic ester which, in reconstituted form, consists of the mannitol ester in equilibrium with its hydrolysis product, the monomeric boronic acid. The drug substance exists in its cyclic anhydride form as a trimeric boroxine.
The chemical name for bortezomib, the monomeric boronic acid, is [(1R)-3-methyl-1-[[(2S)-1-oxo-3-phenyl-2-[(pyrazinylcarbonyl) amino]propyl]amino]butyl] boronic acid.
Bortezomib has the following chemical structure:
The molecular weight is 384.24. The molecular formula is C19H25BN4O4. The solubility of bortezomib, as the monomeric boronic acid, in water is 3.3 to 3.8 mg/mL in a pH range of 2 to 6.5.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Bortezomib is a reversible inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 26S proteasome in mammalian cells. The 26S proteasome is a large protein complex that degrades ubiquitinated proteins. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an essential role in regulating the intracellular concentration of specific proteins, thereby maintaining homeostasis within cells. Inhibition of the 26S proteasome prevents this targeted proteolysis, which can affect multiple signaling cascades within the cell. This disruption of normal homeostatic mechanisms can lead to cell death. Experiments have demonstrated that bortezomib is cytotoxic to a variety of cancer cell types in vitro. Bortezomib causes a delay in tumor growth in vivo in nonclinical tumor models, including multiple myeloma.
Following twice weekly administration of 1 mg/m2 and 1.3 mg/m2 bortezomib doses (n=12 per each dose level), the maximum inhibition of 20S proteasome activity (relative to baseline) in whole blood was observed 5 minutes after drug administration. Comparable maximum inhibition of 20S proteasome activity was observed between 1 and 1.3 mg/m2 doses. Maximal inhibition ranged from 70% to 84% and from 73% to 83% for the 1 mg/m2 and 1.3 mg/m2 dose regimens, respectively.
Following intravenous administration of 1 mg/m2 and 1.3 mg/m2 doses to 24 patients with multiple myeloma (n=12, per each dose level), the mean maximum plasma concentrations of bortezomib (Cmax) after the first dose (Day 1) were 57 and 112 ng/mL, respectively. In subsequent doses, when administered twice weekly, the mean maximum observed plasma concentrations ranged from 67 to 106 ng/mL for the 1 mg/m2 dose and 89 to 120 ng/mL for the 1.3 mg/m2 dose. The mean elimination half-life of bortezomib upon multiple dosing ranged from 40 to 193 hours after the 1 mg/m2 dose and 76 to 108 hours after the 1.3mg/m2 dose. The mean total body clearances was 102 and 112 L/h following the first dose for doses of 1 mg/m2 and 1.3 mg/m2, respectively, and ranged from 15 to 32 L/h following subsequent doses for doses of 1 and 1.3 mg/m2, respectively.
Distribution: The mean distribution volume of bortezomib ranged from approximately 498 to 1884 L/m2 following single- or repeat-dose administration of 1 mg/m2 or 1.3mg/m2 to patients with multiple myeloma. This suggests bortezomib distributes widely to peripheral tissues. The binding of bortezomib to human plasma proteins averaged 83% over the concentration range of 100 to 1000 ng/mL.
Metabolism: In vitro studies with human liver microsomes and human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 isozymes indicate that bortezomib is primarily oxidatively metabolized via cytochrome P450 enzymes 3A4, 2C19, and 1A2. Bortezomib metabolism by CYP 2D6 and 2C9 enzymes is minor. The major metabolic pathway is deboronation to form 2 deboronated metabolites that subsequently undergo hydroxylation to several metabolites. Deboronated bortezomib metabolites are inactive as 26S proteasome inhibitors. Pooled plasma data from 8 patients at 10 min and 30 min after dosing indicate that the plasma levels of metabolites are low compared to the parent drug.
Age: Analyses of data after the first dose of Cycle 1 (Day 1) in 39 multiple myeloma patients who had received intravenous doses of 1 mg/m2 and 1.3 mg/m2 showed that both dose-normalized AUC and Cmax tend to be less in younger patients. Patients < 65 years of age (n=26) had about 25% lower mean dose-normalized AUC and Cmax than those ≥ 65 years of age (n=13).
Gender: Mean dose-normalized AUC and Cmax values were comparable between male (n=22) and female (n=17) patients after the first dose of Cycle 1 for the 1 and 1.3 mg/m2 doses.
Race: The effect of race on exposure to bortezomib could not be assessed as most of the patients were Caucasian.
Hepatic Impairment: The effect of hepatic impairment (see Table 4 for definition of hepatic impairment) on the pharmacokinetics of bortezomib was assessed in 51 cancer patients at bortezomib doses ranging from 0.5 to 1.3 mg/m2. When compared to patients with normal hepatic function, mild hepatic impairment did not alter dose-normalized bortezomib AUC. However, the dose-normalized mean AUC values were increased by approximately 60% in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. A lower starting dose is recommended in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment, and those patients should be monitored closely. [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Warning and Precautions (5.11) and Use in Specific Populations (8.7)]
Renal Impairment: A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in patients with various degrees of renal impairment who were classified according to their creatinine clearance values (CrCl) into the following groups: Normal (CrCl ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, N=12), Mild (CrCl=40-59 mL/min/1.73 m2, N=10), Moderate (CrCl=20-39 mL/min/1.73 m2, N=9), and Severe (CrCl < 20 mL/min/1.73 m2, N=3). A group of dialysis patients who were dosed after dialysis was also included in the study (N=8). Patients were administered intravenous doses of 0.7 to 1.3 mg/m2 of bortezomib twice weekly. Exposure of bortezomib (dose-normalized AUC and Cmax) was comparable among all the groups. [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]
Effect of Ketoconazole: Co-administration of ketoconazole, a potent CYP3A inhibitor, showed a 35% increase in mean bortezomib AUC, based on data from 12 patients. [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]
Effect of Melphalan-Prednisone: Co-administration of melphalan-prednisone on VELCADE showed a 17% increase in mean bortezomib AUC based on data from 21 patients. This increase is unlikely to be clinically relevant. [see Drug Interactions (7.2)]
Effect of Omeprazole: Co-administration of omeprazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP2C19, had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of bortezomib, based on data from 17 patients. [see Drug Interactions (7.3)]
Cytochrome P450: Bortezomib is a poor inhibitor of human liver microsome cytochrome P450 1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4, with IC50 values of >30μM (>11.5μg/mL). Bortezomib may inhibit 2C19 activity (IC50 = 18 μM, 6.9 μg/mL) and increase exposure to drugs that are substrates for this enzyme. Bortezomib did not induce the activities of cytochrome P450 3A4 and 1A2 in primary cultured human hepatocytes. [see Drug Interactions (7.4)]
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with bortezomib.
Bortezomib showed clastogenic activity (structural chromosomal aberrations) in the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay using Chinese hamster ovary cells. Bortezomib was not genotoxic when tested in the in vitro mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and in vivo micronucleus assay in mice.
Fertility studies with bortezomib were not performed but evaluation of reproductive tissues has been performed in the general toxicity studies. In the 6-month rat toxicity study, degenerative effects in the ovary were observed at doses ≥0.3 mg/m2 (one-fourth of the recommended clinical dose), and degenerative changes in the testes occurred at 1.2 mg/m2. VELCADE could have a potential effect on either male or female fertility.
13.2 Animal Toxicology
Cardiovascular Toxicity: Studies in monkeys showed that administration of dosages approximately twice the recommended clinical dose resulted in heart rate elevations, followed by profound progressive hypotension, bradycardia, and death 12 to 14 hours post dose. Doses ≥1.2 mg/m2 induced dose-proportional changes in cardiac parameters. Bortezomib has been shown to distribute to most tissues in the body, including the myocardium. In a repeated dosing toxicity study in the monkey, myocardial hemorrhage, inflammation, and necrosis were also observed.
Chronic Administration: In animal studies at a dose and schedule similar to that recommended for patients (twice weekly dosing for 2 weeks followed by 1-week rest), toxicities observed included severe anemia and thrombocytopenia, and gastrointestinal, neurological and lymphoid system toxicities. Neurotoxic effects of bortezomib in animal studies included axonal swelling and degeneration in peripheral nerves, dorsal spinal roots, and tracts of the spinal cord. Additionally, multifocal hemorrhage and necrosis in the brain, eye, and heart were observed.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
14.1 Multiple Myeloma
Randomized, Open-Label Clinical Study in Patients with Previously Untreated Multiple Myeloma:
The median age of the patients in the study was 71 years (48;91), 50% were male, 88% were Caucasian and the median Karnofsky performance status score for the patients was 80 (60;100). Patients had IgG/IgA/Light chain myeloma in 63%/25%/8% instances, a median hemoglobin of 105 g/L (64;165), and a median platelet count of 221,500 /microliter (33,000;587,000).
Efficacy results for the trial are presented in Table 9. At a pre-specified interim analysis (with median follow-up of 16.3 months), the combination of VELCADE, Melphalan and Prednisone therapy resulted in significantly superior results for time to progression, progression free survival, overall survival and response rate. Further enrollment was halted, and patients receiving Melphalan and Prednisone were offered VELCADE in addition. A later, pre-specified analysis of overall survival (with median follow-up of 36.7 months) continued to show a statistically significant survival benefit for the VELCADE, Melphalan and Prednisone treatment arm despite subsequent therapies including VELCADE based regimens.
TTP was statistically significantly longer on the VELCADE, Melphalan and Prednisone arm (see Figure 1). (median follow up 16.3 months)
Figure 1: Time to Progression
Overall survival was statistically significantly longer on the VELCADE, Melphalan and Prednisone arm (see Figure 2). (median follow up 36.7 months)
Figure 2: Overall Survival
Randomized, Clinical Study in Relapsed Multiple Myeloma
Stratification factors were based on the number of lines of prior therapy the patient had previously received (1 previous line versus more than 1 line of therapy), time of progression relative to prior treatment (progression during or within 6 months of stopping their most recent therapy versus relapse >6 months after receiving their most recent therapy), and screening β2-microglobulin levels (≤2.5 mg/L versus >2.5 mg/L).
Baseline patient and disease characteristics are summarized in Table 10.
Patients in the VELCADE treatment group were to receive eight 3-week treatment cycles followed by three 5-week treatment cycles of VELCADE. Patients achieving a CR were treated for 4 cycles beyond first evidence of CR. Within each 3-week treatment cycle, VELCADE 1.3 mg/m2/dose alone was administered by IV bolus twice weekly for 2 weeks on Days 1, 4, 8, and 11 followed by a 10-day rest period (Days 12 to 21). Within each 5-week treatment cycle, VELCADE 1.3 mg/m2/dose alone was administered by IV bolus once weekly for 4 weeks on Days 1, 8, 15, and 22 followed by a 13-day rest period (Days 23 to 35). [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]
Patients in the dexamethasone treatment group were to receive four 5-week treatment cycles followed by five 4-week treatment cycles. Within each 5-week treatment cycle, dexamethasone 40 mg/day PO was administered once daily on Days 1 to 4, 9 to 12, and 17 to 20 followed by a 15-day rest period (Days 21-35). Within each 4-week treatment cycle, dexamethasone 40 mg/day PO was administered once daily on Days 1 to 4 followed by a 24-day rest period (Days 5 to 28). Patients with documented progressive disease on dexamethasone were offered VELCADE at a standard dose and schedule on a companion study. Following a preplanned interim analysis of time to progression, the dexamethasone arm was halted and all patients randomized to dexamethasone were offered VELCADE, regardless of disease status.
In the VELCADE arm, 34% of patients received at least one VELCADE dose in all 8 of the 3-week cycles of therapy, and 13% received at least one dose in all 11 cycles. The average number of VELCADE doses during the study was 22, with a range of 1 to 44. In the dexamethasone arm, 40% of patients received at least one dose in all 4 of the 5-week treatment cycles of therapy, and 6% received at least one dose in all 9 cycles.
The time to event analyses and response rates from the relapsed multiple myeloma study are presented in Table 11. Response and progression were assessed using the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) criteria.1 Complete response (CR) required <5% plasma cells in the marrow, 100% reduction in M-protein, and a negative immunofixation test (IF-). Partial response (PR) requires ≥50% reduction in serum myeloma protein and ≥90% reduction of urine myeloma protein on at least 2 occasions for a minimum of at least 6 weeks along with stable bone disease and normal calcium. Near complete response (nCR) was defined as meeting all the criteria for complete response including 100% reduction in M-protein by protein electrophoresis, however M-protein was still detectable by immunofixation (IF+).
TTP was statistically significantly longer on the VELCADE arm (see Figure 3).
Figure 3: Time to Progression Bortezomib vs. Dexamethasone (relapsed multiple myeloma study)
As shown in Figure 4 VELCADE had a significant survival advantage relative to dexamethasone (p<0.05). The median follow-up was 8.3 months.
Figure 4: Overall Survival
For the 121 patients achieving a response (CR or PR) on the VELCADE arm, the median duration was 8.0 months (95% CI: 6.9, 11.5 months) compared to 5.6 months (95% CI: 4.8, 9.2 months) for the 56 responders on the dexamethasone arm. The response rate was significantly higher on the VELCADE arm regardless of β2-microglobulin levels at baseline.
A Randomized Phase 2 Dose-Response Study in Relapsed Multiple Myeloma
A Phase 2 Open-Label Extension Study in Relapsed Multiple Myeloma
14.2 Mantle Cell Lymphoma
A Phase 2 Single-arm Clinical Study in Relapsed Mantle Cell Lymphoma After Prior Therapy
Responses to VELCADE are shown in Table 12. Response rates to VELCADE were determined according to the International Workshop Response Criteria (IWRC)2 based on independent radiologic review of CT scans. The median number of cycles administered across all patients was 4; in responding patients the median number of cycles was 8. The median time to response was 40 days (range 31 to 204 days). The median duration of follow-up was more than 13 months.
1. Bladé J, Samson D, Reece D, Apperley J, Bjorkstrand B, Gahrton G et al. Criteria for evaluating disease response and progression in patients with multiple myeloma treated by high-dose therapy and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Myeloma Subcommittee of the EBMT. European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplant. British Journal of Haematology 1998;102(5):1115-1123.
2. Cheson BD, Horning SJ, Coiffier B, Shipp MA, Fisher RI, Connors JM et al. Report of an international workshop to standardize response criteria for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. NCI Sponsored International Working Group. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1999; 17 (4):1244.
3. Preventing Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health Care Settings. NIOSH Alert 2004-165.
4. OSHA Technical Manual, TED 1-0.15A, Section VI: Chapter 2. Controlling Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Drugs. OSHA, 1999.
5. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ASHP guidelines on handling hazardous drugs. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2006;63:1172-1193.
6. Polovich, M., White, J. M., & Kelleher, L.O. (eds.) 2005. Chemotherapy and biotherapy guidelines and recommendations for practice (2nd. ed.) Pittsburgh, PA: Oncology Nursing Society.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
VELCADE® (bortezomib) for Injection is supplied as individually cartoned 10 mL vials containing 3.5 mg of bortezomib as a white to off-white cake or powder.
Unopened vials may be stored at controlled room temperature 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted from 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Retain in original package to protect from light.
Consider handling and disposal of VELCADE according to guidelines issued for cytotoxic drugs, including the use of gloves and other protective clothing to prevent skin contact3-6.
U.S. Patents: 5,780,454; 6,083,903; 6,297,217 B1; 6,617,317 B1; 6,713, 446 B2; 6,958,319 B2; 7,119,080 B2; 6,747,150 B2
Distributed and Marketed by:
VELCADE, and MILLENNIUM are registered trademarks of Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
©2010 Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Issued December 2010
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Physicians are advised to discuss the following with patients prior to treatment with VELCADE:
Ability to Drive or Operate Machinery or Impairment of Mental Ability: VELCADE may cause fatigue, dizziness, syncope, orthostatic/postural hypotension. Patients should be advised not to drive or operate machinery if they experience any of these symptoms.
Dehydration/Hypotension: Since patients receiving VELCADE therapy may experience vomiting and/or diarrhea, patients should be advised regarding appropriate measures to avoid dehydration. Patients should be instructed to seek medical advice if they experience symptoms of dizziness, light headedness or fainting spells.
Pregnancy/Nursing: Patients should be advised to use effective contraceptive measures to prevent pregnancy during treatment with VELCADE. If a patient becomes pregnant during treatment she should be instructed to inform her physician immediately. Patients should also be advised not to take VELCADE treatment while pregnant or breast-feeding. If a patient wishes to restart breastfeeding after treatment, she should be advised to discuss the appropriate timing with her physician.
Concomitant Medications: Patients should be advised to speak with their physician about any other medication they are currently taking.
Diabetic Patients: Patients should be advised to check their blood sugar frequently if using an oral antidiabetic medication and notify their physician of any changes in blood sugar level.
Peripheral Neuropathy: Patients should be advised to contact their physician if they experience new or worsening symptoms of peripheral neuropathy such as tingling, numbness, pain, a burning feeling in the feet or hands, or weakness in the arms or legs.
Revised: 12/2010 Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
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